At first, giving a particular attention to the definition of “brand personality”, it can be seen that in the article, the author regarded it as “the set of human characteristics associated with a brand”. It can be seen brand personality is one integral part of the brand image or meaning. Marketing research, which is able to identify the link between the customers/user and a brand, can help explore what kinds of human characteristics that the customers indeed receive from the brand and what would they further like to perceive from the brand. After all, a brand personality is intangible presence, and it becomes meaningful only when its customers can understand it through the process of getting access to and making interaction with the brand. Marketing researches can focus on the interactions, going deep into the responses from the customers towards the personality.
When I went through the analyses about the Indus Valley, I can feel that the author might want to highlight the intangible aspects of brand knowledge. The civilization “arouse in tandem with Mesopotamian society” is not only about physical productions, technologies, it is also about a lifestyle, a thinking pattern, a shared value when people date back to the civilization. I would like to link it with Starbucks, to be more specific, the “Starbucks experience” created by its Reserve Roasteries in larger and metropolitan cities throughout the world like New York, Shanghai, etc. When people get access to the brand, their attentions always go beyond the brand’s physical offerings like the drinks made of 100% ethical coffee bean, they are told about a kind of lifestyle and value characterized by relaxing, middle class, personable, youthful, outgoing, etc.
The article considered that the earliest known example about branding is the magnificent seals of animals that merchants used to “brand their wares”. In fact, I think that the development of awareness of building brands might be much earlier – at the time when people attached great significance to making their offerings different from those of competitors. In other words, branding was formed along with human’ focuses on and development of trades. In my point of view, the different speeds that brands evolve are dependent upon the growth of local economies, and the interactions of different groups. For instance, in Shang China, “zu crests are best representative of a proto-brand”. Zu crests have made products of every zu different with certain information stored and delivered. In fact, regardless of proto-brand of a certain group of people, or a marking/symbol/sign created for commercial purpose, the ways that brands evolve are based on the behavior patterns of humans – humans progression, e.g. a growing awareness of being politically, economically or socially different or transformed, are the decisive factors that influence the presenting forms of brands.